An Educational Programme of Sanitation in India: A Mirage to RealityAuthor : Aafreen Naz and S. M. Jawed Akhtar
Volume 8 No.1 January-March 2019 pp 72-76
Sanitation is the need of the present era. It is the basis of disease free, clean environment and healthy aspect of a hygienic and decent life style. According to the World Bank data the 2.3 billion people in the world live without an access to a toilet and almost 892 million people practice open defecation. Only 69% of world’s population have an access to toilets and 38% have managed to go for safe and germs free defecation. It represents a high categorical underprivileged section of a society deprived of basic amenities. The Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme implementation (MOPS) in its published 2016 report says that usage of toilet is 95.6 percent in rural region and 98.8 percent in urban areas which shows a considerable level of hygienic defecation process practices in Indian households. India has implemented Swacha Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) or Swacha Bharat Mission (SBM) with an objective of cleanliness drive and making India open defecation free. An NSSO survey reveals that 42.5 percent people in rural areas and 87.9 percent in urban areas have access to water facility in toilets. An educational drive or a comprehensive programme is implemented in India with wider application and coverage.
Education, Sanitation and Application
 Bertram, J., Lewis, K., Lenton, R. & Wright, A. (2005). Focussing on improved water and sanitation for health. Elsevier, 365(9461), 810-812.
 Pal, M. & Gupta V. (2008). Community Sanitation Campaign: A study in Haryana. Economic Political Weekly. India, 43(33), 20-23.
 Joshi, Y., (2018). The Real Status of Real Sanitation. Economic Political Weekly, India, 53(28).
 UNICEF Report. (2017). The Financial and Economic Impact of Swachh Bharat Mission in India. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, India
 NSSO Report. (2016). Swachta Status Report. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India.
 World Bank Report. (2011). Economic impact of inadequate sanitation in India. Water and Sanitation Programme.
 SBM Report. (2017). Review of health data in selected ODF and non-ODF districts under the SBM. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, India.
 Rao, M G and Singh. (2003). The political economy of center-state physical transfer an India, World Bank, September issue, 1-21.
 Isunju, J.B., Schwartz, K., Schouten, M.A., Johnso W.P. & Dijk M. P. V. (2011). Socio-economic aspects of improved sanitation in slums: A review. Public Health, Elsevier, 125, 1-9.
 Meenakshi H. (2015, October). Sanitation and Its Impact on Health: A Study in Jorhat, Assam. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(10).
 Ohwo, O. & Agusomu, T. D. (2018). Assessment of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in Sub-Saharan Africa. European Scientific Journal, 14(35), December 2018 edition.
 Swain P. & Pathela S. (2016). Status of sanitation and hygiene practices in the context of “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” in two districts of India. International Journal of Community Health and Public Medicine, 3(11).