Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Stem and Root Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis (Veldt Grape)Author : L. Dinesh Kumar, R. Guna, E. Abbirami, N. Gayathri, R. Karthik and T. Sivasudha
Volume 8 No.1 January-March 2019 pp 15-19
Free radicals are unstable, highly reactive molecules, creates oxidative stress in our body by attacking healthy cells and tissue biomolecules. They are usually neutralized by the antioxidant mechanisms in our system. When the antioxidant mechanism fails to stabilize the radicals, we need external antioxidants to protect our cells from oxidative damage. The objective of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of stem and root extracts of the plant Cissus quadrangularis. Stem and root powders of CQ was extracted with different solvent and they were tested against the synthetic free radical DPPH, ABTS, NO, H2O2 and FRAP with the reference standard BHT. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity assay was also performed for all the extracts along with the reference standard naproxen. The 50 percentage of inhibitory concentration (IC50-μg/ml of extract) values of ethanol fraction from both stem and root extract was found to be in DPPH- (IC50: 32±0.07 & 28±0.02), ABTS- (IC50: 115±0.22 & 120±0.06), NO- (IC50: 13±0.05 & 47±0.13), H2O2- (IC50: 21±0.08 & 28±0.09), TAA- (PI: 73±0.16 & 66±0.22) and the protein denaturation assay showed the ethanol fraction has protective activity levels of 220±0.03 & 277±0.22 in stem and root extracts respectively. Results obtained from this study suggested that both stem and root extracts of CQ possesses potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Cissus quadrangularis, Free Radicals, Antioxidants, Inflammation
 M. Lawson, K. Jomova, P. Poprac, K. Kuča, K. Musílek, and M. Valko, 1st Ed., Nutritional Antioxidant Therapies: Treatments and Perspectives, Al-Gubory, Kaïs Hussain, Laher Ismail., Ed. Springer-Cham, 2017.
 H. Sies, C. Berndt, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative stress”, Annu Rev Biochem., Vol. 20, No. 86, pp. 715-48, 2017.
 P. Poprac, K. Jomova, M. Simunkova, V. Kollar, C. J. Rhodes, and M. Valko, “Targeting free radicals in oxidative stress-related human diseases”, Trends Pharmacol Sci., Vol. 38, No. 7, pp. 592-607, 2017.
 E. Hyun, M. Bolla, M. Steinhoff, J. L. Wallace, P. Del Soldato, and N. Vergnolle, “Anti‐inflammatory effects of nitric oxide‐releasing hydrocortisone NCX 1022, in a murine model of contact dermatitis”, Br J Pharmacol., Vol. 143, No. 5, pp. 618-625, 2004.
 M. Thompson, K. K. Al-Qattan, S.W. Al-Sawan, M.A. Al-Nageeb, and I. Khan, “The use of ginger as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent, Prostagladin, leukotriens and essential fatty acids”, Prostaglandins Leukot Essen Fatty Acids., Vol. 67, No. 6, pp. 475-478, 2002.
 Y. Abe, S. H. Hashimoto, and T. Horie, “Curcumin inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages”, Pharmacol Res., Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 41-47, 1999.
 G. Kaithwas, R. Gautam, S. M. Jachak, and A. Saklani, “Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats”, Asian Pac J Trop Biomed., Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 185, Mar. 2012.
 B. Jayaprakasam, and M. G. Nair, “Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory withanolides from withania somnifera leaves”, Tetrahedran., Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 841-849, 2002.
 A. S. Chawla, A. K. Sharma, S. S. Handa, and K. L. Dhar, “Chemical investigation and anti-inflammatory activity of Vitex negundo seeds: Part I”, J Nat Prod., Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 773-776, 1992.
 A. C. Allison, R. Cacabelos, V. R. Lombardi, X. A. Álvarez, and C. Vigo, “Celastrol, a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug, as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease”, Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry., Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 1341-1357, Oct. 2001.
 S. K. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosal, “Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: an experimental study”, Phytomedicine, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 77-82, 1998.
 M. M. Shabi, R. Dhevi, K. Gayathri, U. Subashini, G. V. Rajamanickam, and G. P. Dubey, “C. halicacabum (Linn): investigations on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect”, Bulgarian J Vet Med., Vol.12, No. 3, pp. 171-177, 2009.
 A. K. Rawal, D. K. Nath, N. Yadav, S. Pande, S. U. Meshram, and S. K. Biswas, “Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert anti-inflammatory properties by modulating platelet aggregation and VEGF, COX-2 and VCAM gene expressions in rat hippocampal slices subjected to ischemic reperfusion injury”, Int J Appl Res Nat Prod., Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 19-26, 2009.
 J. Paval, S. K. Kaitheri, B. K. Potu, S. Govindan, R. S. Kumar, S. N. Narayanan, and S. Moorkoth, “Anti-arthritic potential of the plant Justicia gendarussa Burm F”, Clinics., Vol. 64, No. 4, pp. 357-362, 2009.
 A. Herold, L. Cremer, A. Călugaru, V. Tamaş, F. Ionescu, S. Manea and G. Szegli, “Hydroalcoholic plant extracts with anti-inflammatory activity”, Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol., Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 117-129, 2003.
 G. McGregor, B. Fiebich, A. Wartenberg, S. Brien, G. Lewith, and T. Wegener, “Devil‟s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens): an anti-inflammatory herb with therapeutic potential”, Phytochemistry Rev., Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 47-53, 2005.
 E. R. Secor Jr, W. F. Carson, M. M. Cloutier, L. A. Guernsey, C. M. Schramm, C. A. Wu, and R. S. Thrall, “Bromelain exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease”, Cell Immunol., Vol. 237, No. 1, pp. 68-75, 2005.
 C. Gopalakrishnan, D. Shankaranarayanan, S. K. Nazimudeen, S. Viswanathan, and L. Kameswaran, “Anti-inflammatory and CNS depressant activities of xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum and Mesua ferrea”, Indian J Pharmacol., Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 181, 1980.
 C. Thangam, and R. Dhananjayan, “Antiinflammatory potential of the seeds of Carum copticum Linn.”, Indian J Pharmacol., Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 388-391, 2003.
 M. S. Bagul, H. Srinivasa, N. S. Kanaki, and M. Rajani, “Antiinflammatory activity of two Ayurvedic formulations containing guggul”, Indian J Pharmacol., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp.399, 2005.
 M. Knödler, J. Conrad, E. M. Wenzig, R. Bauer, M. Lacorn, U. Beifuss, R. Carle, and A. Schieber, “Anti-inflammatory 5-(11′ Z-heptadecenyl)-and 5-(8′ Z, 11′ Z-heptadecadienyl)-resorcinols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peels”, Phytochemistry., Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 988-993, 2008.
 N. G. Sutar, Y. P. Sharma, P. N. Kendre, M. K. Panigrahi, T. A. Deshmukh, and N. P. Jain, “Anti-inflammatory activity of whole plant of pergularia daemia linn. in albino rats”, J Herb Med Toxicol., Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 131-132, 2009.
 J. R. Stöhr, P. G. Xiao, and R Bauer, “Constituents of Chinese Piper species and their inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro”, J Ethnopharmacol., Vol. 75, No. 3, pp. 133-139, 2001.
 K. D. Arunachalam, P. Velmurugan, and R. B. Raja, “Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of extract from Plumbago zeylanica”, Afr J Microbiol Res., Vol. 4, No. 12, pp. 1239-1245, 2010.
 M. R. Khan, G. Ndaalio, M. H. Nkunya, and H. Wevers, “Studies on the rationale of African traditional medicine. Part II. Preliminary screening of medicinal plants for anti-gonococci activity”, J Sci Ind Res., Vol. 27, No. 516, pp. 189-92, 1978.
 W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier, and C. L. Berset, “Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity”, LWT-Food Sci Technol., Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 25-30, 1995.
 M. Ozgen, R. N. Reese, A. Z. Tulio, J. C. Scheerens, and A. R. Miller, “Modified 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) method to measure antioxidant capacity of selected small fruits and comparison to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2 „-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods”, J Agric Food Chem., Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 1151-1157, 2006.
 L. Marcocci, J. J. Maguire, M. T. Droylefaix, and L. Packer, “The nitric oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761”, Biochem Biophys Res Commun., Vol. 201, No. 2, pp.748-755, 1994.
 R. J. Ruch, S. J. Cheng, and J. E. Klaunig, “Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea”, Carcinogenesis., Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 1003-1008, 1989.
 P. Prieto, M. Pineda, and M. Aguilar, “Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin”, E. Anal Biochem., Vol. 269, No. 2, pp. 337-341, 1999.
 P. Padmanabhan and S N. Jangle, “Evaluation of DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of four selected medicinal plants and their combinations”, Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res., Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 143-146, 2012.
 L. W. Oberley, “Free radicals and diabetes”, Free Radic Biol Med., Vol. 5, No.2 pp. 11-24, 1988.
 N. Bashan, J. Kovsan, I. Kachko, H. Ovadia, and A Rudich, “Positive and negative regulation of insulin signaling by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species”, Physiol Rev., Vol. 89, No. 1, pp. 27-71, 2009.
 S. Olivieri, A. Conti, S. Iannaccone, C. V. Cannistraci, A. Campanella, M. Barbariga, F. Codazzi, I. Pelizzoni, G. Magnani, M. Pesca, and D Franciotta, “Ceruloplasmin oxidation, a feature of Parkinson’s disease CSF, inhibits ferroxidase activity and promotes cellular iron retention”, J Neurosci., Vol. 31, No. 50, pp. 18568-18577, 2011.
 D. A. Butterfield, M. Perluigi, and R. Sultana, “Oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease brain: new insights from redox proteomics”, Euro J Pharm., Vol. 545, No. 1, pp. 39-50, 2006.
 A. Phaniendra, D. B. Jestadi, and L. Periyasamy, “Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases”, Indian J Clin Biochem., Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 11-26, 2015.