Gender Pay Gap in India: A Sectoral and Regional AnalysisAuthor : Hemlata Sharma
Volume 7 No.2 July-September 2018 pp 1-5
This paper attempts to measure Gender Pay Gap (GPG) in India using NSSO data for the year 2011-12. Our results show that Gender Pay Gap in India is higher in rural sector as compared to urban sector. In both rural and urban sector agriculture and private households with employed persons account for highest Gender Pay Gap. Our results also show that GPG is higher among illiterates and below matric literate employees. However, state level analysis of Gender Pay Gap shows that economically developed states have lower Gender Pay Gap and the poorer states have higher Gender Pay Gap in India.
Gender Pay Gap, NSSO, Rural Sector and Urban Sector
 Becker, Gary S. (1962). Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 70(5), 9-49, Part 2: Investment in Human Beings.
 Becker, Gary S. (1957). The Economics of Discrimination. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
 Berta Esteve-Volart (2004). Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India. Suntory and Toyota International Centre for Economics and Related Disciplines London School of Economics and Political Science, DEDPS 42.
 Bhaumik, S. K., & Chakrabarty M. (2008). Does move to market have an impact on earnings gap across gender? Some evidence from India. Applied Economics Letters, 15(8), 601-605.
 Boserup Ester. (1970). Woman‟s Role in Economic Development. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London
 Brainerd Elizabeth (2000). Women in Transition: Changes in Gender Wage Differentials in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. ILR Review, 54(1), 138-162.
 Busse M and Spielmann C (2006). Gender inequality and trade. Review of International Economics, 14 (3), 362–379.
 Chicha, M.T. (2006). A Comparative Analysis of Promoting Pay Equity: Models and Impacts. DECLARATION/WP/49/2006, Working Paper ILO Geneva.
 Chowdhury P. (1993). High Participation, Low Evaluation: Women and Work in Rural Haryana. Economic & Political Weekly, 28(52), A135-A137+A140-A148.
 Dreze, J., & Sen, A. (1995). India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
 Duraisamy, P. & Duraisamy, M. (1998). Accounting for Wage differentials in an Organized Labour Market in India. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 41(4), 934-944.
 Education International. (2011). The Gender Pay Gap – Reasons and Implications. Pay Equity Now. Brussels, Belgium: http://download.ei-ie.org/Docs/WebDepot/feature2 – 100303 – reasons and implications – final EN.pdf. accessed on 14 April 2018
 Gibelman, M. (2003). So How Far Have We Come? Pestilent and Persistent Gender Gap in Pay. Social Work, 48(1), 22-32.
 Goel, Manisha (2009). Trends in Wage Inequality in India. Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University
 Goldberg, J. D., & Hill, C. A. (2007). Behind the Pay Gap. AAUW Educational Foundation, Washington, DC.
 Jann, B. (2008). The Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition for Liner Regression Models. The State Journal, 8(4), pp. 453-479.
 Kao, C, Polachek S. & Wunnava P. (1994). Male-Female Wage Differentials in Taiwan. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 42(2), 351-74.
 Khanna & Shantanu (2012). Gender Wage Discrimination in India: Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor? Working Paper No. 214, Centre for Development Economics, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
 Kingdon, G. G., and Unni J. (2001). Education and women‟s labour market outcomes in India. Education Economics, 9(2), 173.195
 Madheswaran, S. & Lakshmanasamy, T (1996). Occupational Segregation and Earnings Differentials by Sex: Evidence from India. Artha Vijnana, 38(4), pp. 372-386.
 Mincer J. (1962b). Labour Force Participation of Married Women: A Study of Labour Supply. in H. G. Lewis (ed.), Aspects of Labour Economics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 63–105.
 Mitra S. (2006): “Patterns of Female Employment in Urban India: Analysis of NSSO Data (1983 to 1999-2000). Economic & Political Weekly, 41(48), 5000-5008.
 Nihila, M. (1999). Marginalisation of Women Workers: Leather Tanning Industry in Tamil Nadu. Economic and Political Weekly, 17-24.
 Perrons, D. (2009). Women and Gender Equity in Employment – Patterns, progress and challenges. IES Working Paper WP23.
 Planning Commission. Report of the Steering Committee on Empowerment of Women and Development of Children for the Eleventh Plan. Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India.
 Planning Commission. (2006). “Report of the Working Group on Empowerment of Women for the XI Plan (2007 – 2012)”. Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India.
 Rees, Teresa, (1992). Women and the Labour Market. Routledge, New York.
 Seguino S (2000). Gender inequality and economic growth: A cross-country analysis. World Development, 28(7) 1211–1230.
 Singh R.D. (Oct., 1996). Female Agricultural Workers’ Wages, Male-Female Wage Differentials, and Agricultural Growth in a Developing Country. India Economic Development and Cultural Change, 45(1), 89-123.
 Stanley T. & Stephen B. Jarrell (1998). Gender Wage Discrimination Bias? A Meta-Regression Analysis. Journal of Human Resources, 33(4), 947-973.
 Tijdens, K. G., & Klaveren, M. V. (2012). Frozen in Time: Gender Pay Gap Unchanged for 10 Years. Brussels: ITUC.
 Van Klaveren, M & Tijdens K.G. (2012). Empowering Women in Work in Developing Countries. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
 World Bank. (2012). World Development Report. World Bank.
 Zahidi, S., & Ibarra, H. (2010). The Corporate Gender Gap Report. World Economic Forum, Geneva. 5