Health Accessibility and Vulnerability among Marginalized Communities: A Study in Urban Slums in KeralaAuthor : M. M. Rajeev
Volume 7 No.3 October-December 2018 pp 69-75
The living environments and its direct impact on health and related areas are much significant in the socio- economic and environment studies. The vulnerability of the any marginalized sections of the societies needs to be studied and refereed for a change. As far as concerned, the slums are considerably disadvantaged to inadequate health, contaminated water sources, poor sanitation, unhygienic environment and poor quality of living. The census 2011 defines a slum as “residential areas where dwellings are unfit for human habitation” because they are dilapidated, cramped, poorly ventilated, unclean, or “any combination of these factors which are detrimental to the safety and health” (Census, Govt of India, 2011). Roughly 1.37 crore households, or 17.4% of urban Indian households lived in a slum in 2011, data released by the registrar general and census commissioner’s office showed. The new data is difficult to compare with previous years, because the 2011 Census covers all 4,041 statutory towns in India, as compared to 2001 when only statutory towns with population over 20,000 were covered. The 2001 data had set India’s slum population at 15% of the total population. The objectives of the study are (1) to understand the major health issues existing in the urban slum (2) to understand the involvement of government and other stakeholders in addressing the multiple issues in the slums (3) to find out the major preventive strategies for addressing the various health issues in the urban slums (4) to highlight possible suggestions to improve the health conditions of the people living in the slums. The methodology employed in the study is analytical, based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data generated through purposive sampling techniques as well as through focus groups discussions and interactions with stakeholders. A descriptive design was adopted for the study. The universe of the study consists of the two slums in Kollam Corporation. The researcher used random sampling method for selecting the samples and the researcher elicited primary data through questionnaire and for secondary data books, magazines and internet facilities were used. The total sample size is 120 respondents from 2 slums in Kollam district. The collected data from the respondents were tabulated and interpreted and later analyzed. The findings highlighted the slum dwellers need to make aware of the need for improvement in living conditions, and they must readily involve themselves with every phase of the rehabilitation. Practical and innovative approaches need to be put into practice to integrate slums within the cities. Governments need to pay more attention to slums and make concerted attempts to address this problem proactively.
Vulnerability, marginalized sections, Census 2011, descriptive design
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