Application of DCT and Weld Harfacing for Enhancing Erosion Resistance of PCBN: A ReviewAuthor : Puneet Pal Singh, Pardeep Kumar and Gurpreet Singh
Volume 7 No.2 Special Issue:November 2018 pp 154-159
Solid particle erosion (SPE) is a dominating material removal process in various industries which contributes to material degradation of wide variety of engineering tools and components. Literature evidences the efforts made to capture the material degradation problem due to SPE. Enhancement of mechanical properties like hardness with sufficient ductility is prerequisite of erosion resistance. But it is difficult to improve conflicting properties such as hardness and ductility at the same time. Hardfacing is an effective method to extend the service life of machine components experiencing abrasive, corrosive or erosive wear, by increasing surface hardness without affecting the ductility of the base metal. It can be done with the help of various welding techniques, depending upon the prevailing conditions, requirements and desired results. Submerged arc welding (SAW) provides large deposit rates with ease of automation. Heat treatment is a conventional process, which is used since long times to alter different properties of materials according to the requirements. Deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) followed by a subsequent tempering process has also reported to produce interestingly positive results by improving hardness, toughness and erosive wear resistance of tool steels, carburized steels and cast irons. This paper reviews the current status of literature exhibiting the use of DCT in tackling the problem of SPE and its proposed use in improving erosion resistance of pulverized coal burner nozzles (PCBN’s) used in thermal power generation plant.
Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), Submerged Arc Welding (SAW), Deep Cryogenic Treatment (DCT), Retained Austenite, Pulverized Coal Burner Nozzle (PCBN)
 M. Roy, “Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. R101-R124, 2006.
 G.A. Sargent, and D. Saigal, “Erosion of Low-Carbon Steel by Coal Particles”, A S L E Transactions, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 256-266, 1986.
 B.S.S. Pardeep Kumar, “Heat Treatment Effect on Erosion Characteristics of Hypereutectic Structural Hardface Overlay”, International Journal of Surface Engineering & Materials Technology, Vol. 4, pp. 23-28, 2014.
 H.S.S. Chamkaur Jindal, “Erosion Resistance Behavior of SS304 Steel Hardfaced by SMAW with Addition of Molybdenum”, Asian Review of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 61-65, 2013.
 K. Shimizu, Y. Xinba, and S. Araya, “Solid particle erosion and mechanical properties of stainless steels at elevated temperature”, Wear, Vol. 271, No. 9-10, pp. 1357-1364, 2011.
 S.S.C. Anoop Monga, Wear of Materials- A Review. 2014.
 B. Venkatesh, K. Sriker, and V.S.V. Prabhakar, “Wear Characteristics of Hardfacing Alloys: State-of-the-art”, Procedia Materials Science, Vol. 10, pp. 527-532, 2015.
 !!! INVALID CITATION !!!
 N. Yüksel, and S. Şahin, “Wear behavior–hardness–microstructure relation of Fe–Cr–C and Fe–Cr–C–B based hardfacing alloys”, Materials & Design, Vol. 58, pp. 491-498, 2014.
 R. Zahiri, R. Sundaramoorthy, P. Lysz, and C. Subramanian, “Hardfacing using ferro-alloy powder mixtures by submerged arc welding”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 260, pp. 220-229, 2014.
 Y.S. Tarng, and C.H. Chang, “Use of Grey Based Taguchi Methods to determine Submerged Arc Welding process parameters in Hardfacing”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 128, pp. 1-6, 2002.
 M.F. Buchely, J.C. Gutierrez, L.M. León, and A. Toro, “The effect of microstructure on abrasive wear of hardfacing alloys”, Wear, Vol. 259, No. 1-6, pp. 52-61, 2005.
 K. Weman, “Surface cladding and hardfacing methods”, pp. 151-156, 2012.
 C. Katsich, E. Badisch, M. Roy, G.R. Heath, and F. Franek, “Erosive wear of hardfaced Fe–Cr–C alloys at elevated temperature”, Wear, Vol. 267, No. 11, pp. 1856-1864, 2009.
 V. Leskovšek, M. Kalin, and J. Vižintin, “Influence of deep-cryogenic treatment on wear resistance of vacuum heat-treated HSS”, Vacuum, Vol. 80, No. 6, pp. 507-518. , 2006.
 A. Bensely, S. Venkatesh, D. Mohan Lal, G. Nagarajan, A.Rajadurai, and K. Junik, “Effect of cryogenic treatment on distribution of residual stress in case carburized En 353 steel”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 479, No. 1-2, pp. 229-235, 2008.
 C.D. P. Baldissera, “Deep Cryogenic Treatment: A Bibliographic Review”, The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2008, pp. 1-11, 2008.
 V. Firouzdor, E. Nejati, and Khomamizadeh, “Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on wear resistance and tool life of M2 HSS drill”, Journal of Materials F. Processing Technology, Vol. 206, No. 1-3, pp. 467-472, 2008.
 J.D. Darwin, D. Mohan Lal, and G. Nagarajan, “Optimization of cryogenic treatment to maximize the wear resistance of 18% Cr martensitic stainless steel by Taguchi method”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 195, No. 1-3, pp. 241-247, 2008.
 B. Podgornik, F. Majdic, V. Leskovsek, and J. Vizintin, “Improving tribological properties of tool steels through combination of deep-cryogenic treatment and plasma nitriding”, Wear, Vol. 288, pp. 88-93, 2012.
 S.E. Vahdat, S. Nategh, and S. Mirdamadi, “Microstructure and tensile properties of 45WCrV7 tool steel after deep cryogenic treatment”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 585, pp. 444-454, 2013.
 G. Prieto, J.E.P. Ipiña, and W.R. Tuckart, “Cryogenic treatments on AISI 420 stainless steel: Microstructure and mechanical properties”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 605, pp. 236-243, 2014.
 D. Senthilkumar, and I. Rajendran, “A research review on deep cryogenic treatment of steels”, International Journal of Materials and Structural Integrity, Vol. 8, No. 1/2/3, pp. 169, 2014.
 S. Akincioğlu, H. Gökkaya, and İ. Uygur, “A review of cryogenic treatment on cutting tools”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 78, No. 9-12, pp. 1609-1627, 2015.
 B. Podgornik, I. Paulin, B. Zajec, S. Jacobson, and V. Leskovšek, “Deep cryogenic treatment of tool steels”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 229, pp. 398-406, 2016.
 A. Zare, and S.R. Hosseini, “Influence of soaking time in deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-alloy medium-carbon HY-TUF steel”, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 658-666, 2016.
 A. Zare, H. Mansouri, and S.R. Hosseini, “Influence of the holding time of the deep cryogenic treatment on the strain hardening behavior of HY-TUF steel”, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2015.
 K. Yıldızlı, “Investigation on the microstructure and toughness properties of austenitic and duplex stainless steels weldments under cryogenic conditions”, Materials & Design, Vol. 77, pp. 83-94, 2015.
 G. Venses, and R. Sri Siva, “Optimisation of Deep Cryogenic Treatment Process on the Wear Resistance of 100Cr6 Bearing Steel using Taguchi technique”, Journal of Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 9-20, 2015.
 S. Li, M. Xiao, G. Ye, K. Zhao, and M. Yang, “Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on microstructural evolution and alloy phases precipitation of a new low carbon martensitic stainless bearing steel during aging”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 732, pp. 167-177, 2018.
 S. Kumar, M. Nagraj, A. Bongale, and N. Khedkar, “Deep Cryogenic Treatment of AISI M2 Tool Steel and Optimisation of Its Wear Characteristics Using Taguchi„s Approach”, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 9, pp. 4917-4929, 2018.
 P. Baldissera, “Deep cryogenic treatment of AISI 302 stainless steel: Part I – Hardness and tensile properties”, Materials & Design, Vol. 31, No. 10, pp. 4725-4730, 2010.
 R.J.K. Wood, J.C. Walker, T.J. Harvey, S. Wang, and S.S. Rajahram, “Influence of microstructure on the erosion and erosion–corrosion characteristics of 316 stainless steel”, Wear, Vol. 306, No. 1-2, pp. 254-262, 2013.
 D. Das, A.K. Dutta, and K.K. Ray, “Sub-zero treatments of AISI D2 steel: Part II. Wear behavior”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 527, No. 9, pp. 2194-2206, 2010.
 K. Yang, Q. Yang, and Y. Bao, “Effect of carbonitride precipitates on the solid/liquid erosion behaviour of hardfacing alloy”, Applied Surface Science, Vol. 284, pp. 540-544, 2013.
 B. Gülenç, and N. Kahraman, “Wear behaviour of bulldozer rollers welded using a submerged arc welding process”, Materials & Design, Vol. 24, No. 7, pp. 537-542, 2003.
 M.C. Carvalho, Y. Wang, J.A.S. Souza, E.M. Braga, and L. Li, “Characterization of phases and defects in chromium carbide overlays deposited by SAW process”, Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 60, pp. 374-382, 2016.
 A. Arul, S.R.S.B. Marcel Moshi, R. Rajeshkumar, R. Kumar, “Factors Infulencing Submerged Arc Welding on Stainless steel- A Review”, ARPN Journal of Engineeing and Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 1237-1241, 2016.
 P.F. Mendez, N. Barnes, K. Bell, S.D. Borle, S.S. Gajapathi, S.D. Guest, H. Izadi, A.K. Gol, and G. Wood, “Welding processes for
wear resistant overlays”, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 4-25, 2014.
 J. Cui, and L. Chen, “Microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of an alloyed ductile iron subjected to deep cryogenic and austempering treatments”, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 33, No. 12, pp. 1549-1554, 2017.
 P. Baldissera, and C. Delprete, “Deep cryogenic treatment of AISI 302 stainless steel: Part II – Fatigue and corrosion”, Materials & Design, Vol. 31, No. 10, pp. 4731-4737, 2010.
 A.V. Levy, “The Solid Particle Erosion Behavior of Steel as a Function of Microstructure”, Wear, Vol. 68, pp. 269-287, 1981.
 S.G. Sapate, and A.V. Rama Rao, “Effect of carbide volume fraction on erosive wear behaviour of hardfacing cast irons”, Wear, Vol. 256, No. 7-8, pp. 774-786, 2004.
 M. Divakar, V.K. Agarwal, and S.N. Singh, “Effect of the material surface hardness on the erosion of AISI316”, Wear, Vol. 259, No. 1-6, pp. 110-117, 2005.