Asian Journal of Engineering and Applied Technology (AJEAT)
Mechanical Assisted Modification of Halloysite Nano Clay: Characterization and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of Halloysite-Epoxy Nano CompositesAuthor : M. Rudresh, B. H. Maruthi, H. P. Nagaswarupa, B. S. Surendra, M. R. Anil Kumar and N. Raghavendra
Volume 8 No.1 January-March 2019 pp 32-37
Modificationof Halloysite nano clay has been done using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane in the presence of distilled water as solvent media. Untreated and modified nano clay was characterized by Powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Functionalization of Halloysite nano clay is also strongly affected the morphological parameters and enabling the application in epoxy nano composite. However, the influence of modified clay concentration on the mechanical properties of epoxy/nanoclay composites, with different concentrations (2%, 3%, 4% and 5%) of nano clay in the epoxy resin was investigated. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of epoxy were improved upto 4 wt% of HNP’s, evidently because of the loading of modified clay. The tensile strength, tensile Modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulusand fracture toughness of the nanocomposites increased by 13%, 17%, 9%, 14%and 27% respectivelythis demonstrated that the composites were strengthened.
Modified Halloysite Clay, Epoxy Nano Composites, Mechanical Properties, Ultrasonication, Clay Concentration
 B. Guo, Y. Lei, F. Chen, X. Liu, M. Du, and D. Jia, “Styrene-butadiene rubber/ halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid”, Appl. Surf. Sci., Vol. 255, pp. 2715–22, 2008.
 M. Du, B. Guo, and D. Jia, “Thermal stability and flame retardant effects of halloysite nanotubes on poly(propylene)”, EurPolym J., Vol. 42, pp. 1362–9, 2006.
 M. Liu, B. Guo, M. Du, X. Cai, and D. Jia., “Properties of halloysite nanotube -epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems”, Nano tech., Vol. 18, pp. 455703–12, 2007.
 Y. Ye, H. Chen, J. Wu, and L. Ye, “High impact strength epoxy nanocomposites with natural nanotubes”, Polymer, Vol. 48, pp. 6426–33, 2007.
 S. Deng, J. Zhang, L.Ye, and J.Wu, “Toughening epoxies with halloysite nanotubes”, Poly., Vol. 49, pp. 5119–27, 2008.
 DCO. Marney, LJ. Russell, DY. Wu, T. Nguyen, D. Cramm, and N. Rigopoulos, “The suitability of halloysite nanotubes as a fire retardant for nylon 6”, PolymDegradStabil., Vol. 93, pp. 1971–8, 2008.
 H. Ismail, P. Pasbakhsh, MNA. Fauzi, and A.AbuBakar, “Morphological, thermal and tensile properties of halloysitenanotubes
filled ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) nanocomposites”, Polym Test, Vol. 27, pp. 841–50, 2008.
 K. Hedicke-Hochstotter, GT. Lim, and V. Altstadt, “Novel polyamide nanocomposites based on silicate nanotubes of the mineral halloysite”, Comp SciTechnol, Vol. 69, pp. 330–4, 2009.
 B. Guo, Q. Zou, Y. Lei, M. Du, M. Liu, and D. Jia, “Crystallization behaviour of polyamide 6/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites”. ThermochimActa., Vol. 484, pp. 48–56, 2008.
 M. Du, B. Guo, Y. Lei, M. Liu, and D. Jia, “Carboxylated butadiene-styrene rubber/ halloysite nanotube nanocomposites: interfacial interaction and performance”, Poly., Vol. 49, pp. 4871–6, 2008.
 Shiqiang Deng , Jianing Zhang , and Lin Ye, “Halloysite–epoxy nanocomposites with improved particle dispersion through ball mill homogenisation and chemical treatments Composites”, Sci.Tech., Vol. 69, pp. 2497–2505, 2009.
 A.N.E. Luciana Guimaraes, Gotthard Seifert, and Helio A. Duarte, “Structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of single-walled halloysite nanotube models”, J.Phys. Chem. C., Vol.114, pp. 11358–11363, 2010.
 C.N.R. Rao, G.U. Kulkarni, P. John Thomas, and Peter P. Edwards., “Size dependent chemistry: properties of nanocrystals”, Eur. J. – Wiley Online Libr., Vol. 8, pp. 29–35, 2002.
 M. Aly, M.S.J. Hashmi, A.G. Olabi, M. Messeiry, and A.I. Hussain, “Effect of nano clay particles on mechanical, thermal and physical behaviours of waste-glass cement mortars, Mater”, Sci. Eng. A., Vol. 528, pp .7991–7998, 2011.
 RL. Frost, E. Horvath, E. Mako, and J. Kristof., “Modification of low- and high-defect kaolinite surfaces: implications for kaolinite mineral processing”. J. Colloid Int. Sci., Vol. 270, pp. 337–46, 2004.
 B. Wetzel, P. Rosso, F. Haupert, and K. Friedrich, “Epoxy nanocomposites – fracture and toughening mechanisms”, Eng. Fract. Mech., Vol. 73, pp. 2375–98, 2004.
 Peng Yuan, Peter D. Southon, Zongwen Liu, Malcolm E. R. Green, James M. Hook,Sarah J. Antill and Cameron J. Kepert, “Functionalization of Halloysite Clay Nanotubes by Grafting with γ-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane”, J. Phys. Chem. C.,Vol. 112, pp. 15742–15751, 2008.
 V. Khunova, J. Kristóf, I. Kelna, and J. Dybal, “The effect of halloysite modification combined with in situ matrix modifications on the structure and properties ofpolypropylene/halloysitenanocomposites”, eXPRESS Poly. Lett., Vol.7, pp. 471–479, 2013.
 Youhong Tang, Lin Ye, Shiqiang Deng, Cheng Yang, and Wangzhang Yuan, “Influences of processing methods and chemical treatments on fracture toughness of halloysite–epoxy composites”, Mat. Desi.,Vol. 42, pp. 471–477, 2012.
 Yang Meng, MingjieWang, Mengfei Tang, Gonghua Hong, JianminGao and Yao Chen, “Preparation of Robust SuperhydrophobicHalloysite Clay Nanotubes via Mussel-Inspired Surface Modification”, Appl. Sci., Vol.7, pp .1129, 2009.
 A.M. Shanmugharaj, KyongYop Rhee, and Sung Hun Ryu., “Influence of dispersing medium on grafting of aminopropyltriethoxysilane in swelling clay materials”, J. Coll. Interf. Sci. Vol. 298, pp. 854–859, 2006.  N. Raghavendra, H. N. Narasimha Murthy, K R. Vishnu Mahesh, M. Mylarappa ,KP. Ashik , D M K. Siddeswara, and M Krishna, “Effect of Nanoclays on the performance of Mechanical, Thermal and Flammability of Vinylester based nanocomposites”, Mat. Today: Proce., Vol. 4, pp. 12109-12117, 2017.  N. Raghavendra, H N. Narasimha Murthy, K R. Vishnu Mahesh, R. Sridhar, M. Krishna, GangadharAngadi, SalimFirdosh, and SC. Sharma, “Mechanical Behavior of Organomodified Indian BentoniteNanoclayFibre Reinforced Plastic Nanocomposites”, J. Front. Mat. Sci., Vol. 7, pp. 396-404, 2013.
 S. Zainuddina, M.V. Hosura, Y. Zhoua, Alfred T. Narteha, Ashok Kumar, and S. Jeelani, “Experimental and numerical investigations on flexural and thermal properties of nanoclay–epoxy nanocomposites”,Mat. Sci. Eng. A., Vol. 527, pp. 7920–7926, 2010.
 M. Bakar, A. Białkowska, J. Molenda, and J. Piasek, “Preparation and Properties Evaluation of Thermoplastic Modified Epoxy Nanocomposites”, Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B: Physics, Vol. 51, pp. 1159–1171, 2012.
 B. Qi, Q.X. Zhang, M. Bannister, and Y.W. Mai, “Investigation of the mechanical properties of DGEBA-based epoxy resin with nanoclay additives”, Comp. Struct., Vol. 75, pp. 514–519, 2006.
 Youhong Tang, Shiqiang Deng, Lin Ye, Cheng Yang, Qiang Yuan, Jianing Zhang, and Chengbi Zhao, “Effects of unfolded and intercalated halloysites on mechanical properties of halloysite–epoxy nanocomposites”, Composites: Part A., Vol. 42, pp. 345–354, 2011.
 GulcihanGuzel Kaya, ElifYilmaz, and HuseyinDeveci, “Sustainable bean pod/calcined kaolin reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with enhanced mechanical, water sorption and corrosion resistance properties”, Constr. Build. Mat., Vol. 162, pp. 272–279, 2018.
 Tri-Dung Ngo and Minh-Tan Ton-That, “Wet process and exfoliation of clay in epoxy”.Korean J. Chem. Eng., Vol. 33, pp. 3550-3557, 2016.
 GhaderKhanbabaei, Jamal Aalaie, Ali Rahmatpour, AlirezaKhoshniyat, and M. A. Gharabadian, “Preparation and Properties of Epoxy‐Clay Nanocomposites”, J. Macromolecular Scie. Part B: Physics., Vol. 46, pp. 975–986, 2007.
 M. Rudresh, and B. H. Maruthi, “Effect of PMMA on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Polymer Blends”, International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol. 6, pp. 1954-1959, 2018.